智慧財產相關案例分享
▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(著作權法篇)

我國著作權法上之權利耗盡原則 權利耗盡原則可分為國內耗盡與國際耗盡,我國著作權法採國內耗盡原則,此可觀著作權法第59條之1,在中華民國管轄區域內取得著作原件或其合法重製物所有權之人,得以移轉所有權之方式散布之可明。 何謂權利耗盡原則,用淺顯的話來說,亦即「一條牛不可剝兩次皮」,例如你買到一輛車子,你取得車子的所有權,原則上你可以將之再售予他人。但你買到一本小說,並不當然可以將之再轉售甚至出租予他人。小說和車子並不同,小說本質上係原創作人創作之結晶,你取得小說的本體,但小說裏的內容屬於原創作人智慧財產的成果,你未必可以將內容影印下來(重製)或是大聲把內容向公眾唸出來(公開口述),同樣地你將之轉售,此行為屬於著作權法的「散布」,而散布屬於著作財產權,原則上要得到原著作人之同意。 「散布權」屬於著作財產權,如無例外,屬於原著作人所有,ˊ而「散布」在著作權法第3條第1項第12款被定義為,散布:指不問有償或無償,將著作之原件或重製物提供公眾交易或流通。你將購得的小說再轉售他人,屬於以移轉所有權的方式散布之,侵害了原著作人之「散布權」(著作財產權),但著作權法第59條之1設有合理使用之規定,亦即權利耗盡原則,立法者認為你取得小說的所有權,再將之轉售他人,屬於合理使用範疇,原著作人(推定此人擁有完整著作財產權,亦即未將散布權轉讓或授權或同意他人利用)對你再主張享有散布權並不合理,所以在此不構成著作財產權之侵害,但要注意的是依據著作權法第59條之1的規定,只限於在中華民國管轄區域內取得著作原件或其合法重製物所有權之人,才得以移轉所有權之方式散布之,在中華民國管轄區域外取得著作原件或其合法重製物所有權之人,即不得以移轉所有權之方式散布之(無償贈與可以,有償的銷售不可以)。違反者,著作權法有規範民、刑事責任。

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(名氣權;藝人之知名度於其死後之保護)

She Belongs to the Public: Court Rules that Marilyn Monroe Estate has no Rights of Publicity Background:  For the past 50 years—since Monroe’s death in August 1962—Monroe’s Estate (and its successor, Monroe, LLC) has been asserting that it inherited Monroe’s right of publicity, claiming to own Monroe’s images, voice, likeness and biographical information—rights that were worth $27 million in 2011. 背景:自從瑪麗蓮夢露1962死亡至今已50年,其繼承人夢露有限責任公司持續主張其擁有瑪麗蓮夢露的名氣權,包括圖像、聲音、樣貌和傳記資料,這些在2011年總價值2千7百萬美元。 New York or California? 該繼承人主張其擁有瑪麗蓮夢露知名氣權,準據法究竟係依紐約州法抑或是加州法? Rights of publicity vary from state to state: though most states recognize the right during a person’s lifetime, only a few states extend those protections after death.  美國各州對知名度之保護,採取不同的保護強度,雖然大多數的州承認人於其生存其間可主張知名度,僅有少不分的州承認死後名人權。Though in California individuals have a posthumous publicity right, which can be bequeathed, in New York, the right of publicity is extinguished at death.  在加州承認死後名人權,有可被繼承人所繼承,但在紐約知名度在人死後即消滅。Monroe died at a house she owned in Brentwood, California, though she also maintained her prior residence in New York City.  瑪麗蓮夢露於其加州Brentwood自宅內死亡,雖然其住所設在紐約Thus, the issue before the court was clear: if Monroe was a California resident at her death, the Monroe Estate would have inherited control of her name and likeness; if she was a New York resident, those rights would have expired when Monroe died.所以,於訴訟時爭點非常明確,假如瑪麗蓮夢露死時,是加州居民,其繼承人人可繼承並得支配其姓名與樣貌,假使她是紐約居民,上開權利於其死亡時即消滅。(待續)

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(藝人代言契約實務–藝人代言契約應注意事項)

Rights & Licenses 權利及授權 [Sender.Name] is requesting the exclusive right and license to utilize this name in connection with the advertisement, promotion, and sale of their product. This contract is an agreement for those rights and services with the following terms being in place. 被授權者(下稱甲)要求專屬權及被授權利用權利者(下稱乙)之姓名於廣告行銷與銷售產品。本契約係依根據下列條款所為係爭權利與服務之協議。 [Endorser.Name] will provide rights for [Sender.Company] to hold all exclusive rights and licenses needed during the term of [Agreement.Term]. including the ability for use of any nicknames, initials, autographs, photographs, or any other property in relation to the advertisement or sale of mentioned product. 在契約期間,乙將專屬授權與甲,包括有權去利用任何乙之別名、藝名、簽名,照片或其他任何與廣告行銷有關之財產或本契約提及之銷售產品。 Endorsement Agreement Effective Date 代言契約生效日 This agreement shall become effective as of signature dates below and will remain effective for a term of 12 months unless prematurely terminated for failure to comply with any of the terms or conditions listed in this agreement. 本契約於下簽名日時生效,並於簽名生效後12個月為契約期間,除非契約任一方有違約情事,於預先終止本契約,否則契約仍有效存續。 Payment of Royalties 給付權利金 [Sender.Company] agrees to pay all royalties due from sales of such products as agreed between parties.Any and all royalties owed will be due on a yearly basis and shall be payable no later than thirty (30) days after the termination of the preceding full calendar quarter. 甲願給付雙方同意銷售產品所得所有之權利金。如何拖欠及所有之權利金應以年度為基準來給付。 For each royalty period due [Sender.Comany] will provide endorser with written notice of all royalties as well as any and all descriptions of Products that were sold during the Royalty Period or whether any actual Royalty was owed. “Net Sales” shall mean [Sender.Company] gross sales of Product, excluding all customary discounts and allowances as well as returns. The receipt or acceptance by [Endorser.LegalName] for above mentioned statement or payment shall not prevent Endorser from challenging or requesting proof of such document findings. Any and all obligations for the payment of Royalties shall survive expiration or termination of this Agreement and will continue for as long as Endorsed Constructor continues to sell the Product or payment is owed. In the event of underpayment to endorser for any and all royalties, endorser will bill for all royalties as well as interest fees in relation for said royalties.   請尊重著作權;違法利用,本人必究。

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(著作權法篇)

Kardashian West is suing an Alabama doctor for using her name and likeness without permission to promote the procedure. 金、卡黛珊偉斯特對一名阿拉巴馬州的醫師未經其允許使用她的姓名和樣貌去為之行銷而提起民事訴訟 Kim Kardashian West is no stranger to making headlines, but about seven years ago the headlines themselves were stranger than usual thanks to a "vampire facial" the reality star turned entrepreneur underwent while filming Kourtney and Kim Take Miami. 金卡黛珊偉斯特成為頭條新聞已見怪不怪 Last year, Kardashian West divulged that she regretted the procedure and likely would have backed out if she hadn't been filming the show because she recently learned she was pregnant and couldn't use any pain mitigating products — and now she's suing because her name and image are being used to sell the service without her permission. Kardashian West on Monday sued an Alabama doctor for using her likeness to promote a similar procedure. In the complaint filed in California federal court, she alleges Charles Runels has been using her name, face — and even an Instagram pic (see below) — to boost his licensing business.

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(藝術工作者作品之轉讓及授權)

Assignments and Licensing Overview  作品讓與及授權概論 As an artist, one of the best ways to make money is to license or assign your work. Although many people use the terms interchangeably, there is a tremendous difference between licensing and assigning your art. 身為藝人,其中一種最棒的賺錢途徑,即是將自己的作品授權或讓與他人。雖然很多人會將現成的契約條款加以更改來利用,但是授權與讓與著作兩者是有很大之差異。 Assignments: An assignment is basically handing your art over -- for good. Assigning your art to someone else gives them full ownership of the art, to do with as they please. There are plenty of good reasons to do this, but if you're going to give your art away for good, you should pay very close attention to what you're actually giving away. 讓與:基本上讓與係將你作品移轉出去以換取利益。讓與你的作品予某人,是讓與作品的所有權;讓受讓人為符合其意願之事。有諸多好理由作為讓與所有權之依據,但讓與之前,你必須仔細考慮,你將讓與的標的是什麼,想清楚是讓與作品的所有權,例如如果是著作的話,你讓與的即是著作(財產)權,亦即之後該著作所有的著作財產權你都無法利用。 Licenses: A license is more like renting your art out. It gives someone the rights to use your art for a limited time and for limited purposes while you, the artist, retain ultimate ownership of your art. Once the license expires, the licensee can no longer use your art. 授權:授權極近似出租你的作品;此賦予某人在授權契約所限制之期間及限制之目的下可利用該作品,然而創作人你仍保有該作品的所有權。一旦期間屆滿,被授權人不得再利用你的作品。 Unfortunately, many companies use terms like "exclusive licenses" for agreements that are actually assignments. Read the fine print carefully, and make sure you know exactly what you are, and aren't, giving away. 很不幸,許多公司在契約裏使用像〝專屬授權〞這種字眼,但探其本質,實乃讓與。請仔細研讀你的契約,確認你真正想交付出去或你不想交付出去的權利是什麼。 Reversions 權利回彈(以著作財產權為例) A reversion is when something happens that causes the rights to your artwork to spring back to you. Knowing the difference between assignments and licenses, it should be apparent that most reversions should occur in licensing agreements. You grant a company a license to use your artwork for awhile, and then when some predetermined event or events happen, those rights terminate and flow back to you. 當有些約定事由發生,作品的權利將回歸於原創作者。以著作財產權為例,已知著作權之讓與與授權兩者間之差異,顯而易見權利回彈之情形,發生在著作財產權授權契約裏。作品創作者於一段期間內授權公司利用其作品,當一些契約預定事由或事由等發生,該等權利之利用即告終結並回彈於授權者通常是作品的創作者。 請尊重著作權,違法利用,本人必究。