智慧財產相關案例分享
▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(名氣權;藝人之知名度於其死後之保護)

ven 50 years after her death, Marilyn Monroe continues to remain relevant.  In a strongly worded Opinion (available here)  last week, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the Estate of Marilyn Monroe does not have the right to stop others from using Marilyn Monroe’s name and likeness.  At issue in the case was whether Monroe’s Estate inherited a right of publicity in Marilyn Monroe’s name and likeness under California law. 在強而有力以文字載述下來的見解,第九巡迴上訴法院上週判決瑪麗蓮夢露遺產管理人無權去禁止他人利用其姓名及樣貌。本件之爭點是,瑪麗蓮夢露遺產管理人依照加州法是否繼承瑪麗蓮夢露之知名度(名氣權)。 Background:  For the past 50 years—since Monroe’s death in August 1962—Monroe’s Estate (and its successor, Monroe, LLC) has been asserting that it inherited Monroe’s right of publicity, claiming to own Monroe’s images, voice, likeness and biographical information—rights that were worth $27 million in 2011. 背景:從夢露1961年去世50年來—夢露之繼承人,夢露股份有限公司主張其繼承夢露之知名度,宣稱其對夢露的圖像、聲音、樣貌、自傳資料擁有權利,這些權利在2011年值2千7百萬美元。 New York or California?  Rights of publicity vary from state to state: though most states recognize the right during a person’s lifetime, only a few states extend those protections after death.  Though in California individuals have a posthumous publicity right, which can be bequeathed, in New York, the right of publicity is extinguished at death.  Monroe died at a house she owned in Brentwood, California, though she also maintained her prior residence in New York City.  Thus, the issue before the court was clear: if Monroe was a California resident at her death, the Monroe Estate would have inherited control of her name and likeness; if she was a New York resident, those rights would have expired when Monroe died. 紐約或加州:知名度這個權利之適用法各州不同,雖然大部分的州承認在人生存期間有知名度這個權利。僅有少許之州擴張至人死後仍擁有該權利。雖然加州人承認死後名氣權,可以繼承;但在紐約州名氣權於人死時消滅。夢露死於其位於加州Brentwood的房子內,雖然她亦主張在紐約市有住所。因此審理法院很明確地了解到本案爭點係,假如夢露死時是加州居民,那麼夢露遺產管理人將取得支配其姓名及樣貌之權,反之,夢露死時若是紐約州居民,上開權利將於其死亡時消滅。 Prior Proceedings.  After her death, Monroe’s lawyer and executor, Aaron Frosch, asserted to both the New York Surrogate’s Court and the California tax authorities that Monroe died a domiciliary of New York.  This allowed the Monroe Estate to avoid substantial California estate, inheritance and income taxes.  And in 1994, the Monroe Estate faced a claim by Monroe’s alleged daughter, Nancy Miracle, who sought 50% of the Estate under a provision of California law, which was not available under New York law.  The Estate defeated that claim by alleging that Monroe died a New York citizen. 於夢露死後,前訴訟程序中,夢露的律師同時亦是遺產執行人Aaron Frosch在紐約Surrogate's Court 和加州稅捐機關皆主張夢露是紐約州居民。這使得夢露的遺產可規避大筆的遺產稅和所得稅。1994年由一位宣稱是夢露女兒者Nancy Miracle依據加州法律對夢露遺產起訴請求50%的遺產,惟該法律為紐約州所無。最終判決認定夢露死時是紐約居民適用紐約州法,夢露遺產獲得保全。(待續) The Current Lawsuit and the May 2007 Ruling.  The lawsuit was brought in March 2005, when the Marily Monroe, LLC (the successor to the Estate) sued Milton Greene Archives, Inc., claiming ownership of Monroe’s right of publicity and alleging that the defendant unlawfully used Monroe’s image and likeness.  In May 2007 the district court granted summary judgment, holding that Monroe LLC did not own Monroe’s right of publicity because at the time of Monroe’s death neither New York nor California recognized a descendible, posthumous right of publicity.  As the District Court explained, the California law that made publicity rights inheritable was only passed in 1984, decades after Monroe’s 1962 death. The California Legislature Overturns the Court.  In direct response to the Distict Court’s 2007 ruling, the California legislature passed a bill later that year, which said the publicity rights inheritance law was retroactive and applied to all those who had died prior to 1984.  The new law made the right of publicity freely transferable, descendible and able to pass through the residual clause in the will of the deceased personality   The law was explicitly designed to abrogate the 2007 ruling. The District Court’s Second Ruling.  Monroe LLC later sought reconsideration of the district court’s ruling.  Although the district court granted Monroe LLC’s motion for reconsideration, it found that Monroe LLC was “advanc[ing] a position inconsistent with that taken by the estate in the prior proceeding[s].”  The District Court thus ruled that judicial estoppel would preclude Monroe, LLC from now taking an inconsistent position. Ninth Circuit Ruling.  The Ninth Circuit agreed with the district court that judicial estoppel prevented Monroe LLC from taking the position that Monroe died domiciled in California when it had prevailed in earlier suits on the premise that Monroe was a domiciliary of New York: “This is a textbook case for applying judicial estoppel. Monroe’s representatives took one position on Monroe’s domicile at death for 40 years, and then changed their position when it was to their great financial advantage,” the appeals court said. Thus photographers, artists, and others will be able to exploit images without authorization from the estate.  As the Ninth Circuit explained: “We observe that the lengthy dispute over the exploitation of Marilyn Monroe’s persona has ended in exactly the way that Monroe herself predicted more than 50 years ago: ‘I knew I belonged to the public and to the world, not because I was talented or even beautiful but because I had never belonged to anything or anyone else.”

經營遊戲店被訴販賣盜版光碟,律師協助獲判無罪

委託人小如民國91年即於台北市開立一間精品店,其時常會有客人或朋友因遊戲主機方面發生一些問題時,會請小如代為修繕或加以測式之。然於民國93年年末時,突然被警方到店表示,該店有提供該店消費之客戶改遊戲機之防盜拷措施之服務,且同時亦於該店內扣押相關電腦主動、遊戲光碟片及空白光碟片等。此外就其所扣押之遊戲光碟片部份,亦被認為有仿冒當時市面上最夯的sony和微軟的Xbox之商標,進而將其相關商品加以出售獲利之情形存在,故檢警就上述之行為對小如提起公訴,認其違反著作權法第80之2條規定及刑法偽造私文書之相關規定........https://www.alicelaw.com.tw/cases_content.html?n=65

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法

'Resident Evil' Stunt Performer Drops Injury Lawsuit in L.A. 惡靈古堡的特技演員撤回在洛杉磯的訴訟 Its possible, however, that Olivia Jackson may pursue the case elsewhere. Attorneys for British stunt performer Olivia Jackson have dropped a Los Angeles-based lawsuit against the makers of Resident Evil: The Final Chapter.  英國特技演員奧利佛傑克森的律師撤回對“惡靈古堡:最終章”之製作公司在洛杉磯的訴訟。 The defendant argued in the motion to dismiss that Jackson's stunt performer contract specifically includes a provision requiring dispute resolution in South Africa. So it's possible that Jackson may pursue the case elsewhere.  被告爭執到該特技演員契約內容明確規定,本契約如發生爭議其訴訟管轄地為南非,因此該特技演員可能在他地另行起訴。 In September 2016, during the filming of Resident Evil: The Final Chapter, in Cape Town, South Africa, Jackson was badly injured during a stunt. While riding a motorcycle at a high speed, the 34-year-old veteran stunt performer collided with a crane-mounted camera that was traveling in the opposite direction. Her left arm was amputated above the elbow and she suffered lasting nerve damage and facial scarring. 2016年9月,在南非開普敦拍攝上開影片期間,34歲特技演員傑可森在為特技時受了很重的傷。事發時以高速騎著摩托車與反向行進之吊掛攝影機相撞。左手臂手肘以下截肢,同時受有持續性神經損害及面部傷疤。 Jackson’s initial U.S lawsuit, filed in September 2019 in Los Angeles, alleged that Resident Evil director Paul W. Anderson and his longtime producing partner, Jeremy Bolt, were responsible, and requested unspecified damages.   “The dismissal of the lawsuit included no settlement or payment of any kind,” said Joseph R. Taylor, an attorney with Frankfurt Kurnit Klein & Selz, the firm representing the defendants, which included director Anderson and producer Bolt, along with their respective production companies. Jackson’s attorneys didn’t respond to requests for comment. 

▲蘇狀師談營業秘密法

淺談祖傳藥方的智財權保護 文/蘇思鴻律師 ▲各位是否知道世界上最貴的商標是什麼? 答案是可口可樂。而可口可樂的配方屬於營業秘密,它的價值在世界上也是數一數二,可見智慧財產權的威力是何等強大,現在這個時代是屬於知識經濟的時代。 我們常在不管是藥房或是夜市,常會見到祖傳祕方這幾個字,例如在中藥房老闆常會拿出幾帖藥方,稱說這是其幾代前所留下專治某某病的祖傳秘方,或是在夜市賣仙草茶或綠豆湯的阿婆,稱說他的仙草茶或綠豆湯與他人的不同,因為她所賣的加入了祖傳秘方。暫且不管係宣傳花招或噱頭,我們現在聚焦於智慧財產權的討論。 就上述祖傳藥方而言,若你是該祖傳藥方的傳人,你會選擇受那一種智慧財產權的保護?首先,該藥方涉及那些智慧財產權? 依我之見,此涉及專利權及營業秘密,至於要受那種智慧財產權的保護,端視權利人的選擇。 如果權利人選擇受專利權保護,首先要提出申請,同時要指明申請那一種專利。藥品屬於物的發明,應申請發明專利。若通過審查,則取得二十年排他的權利。若選擇受營業秘密保護,則無庸申請,而營業秘密則永久保護。(暫且不管藥物需取得許可方面的管制性法令)如果一個人透過藥物成分解析,得知該祖傳藥方的成分,進而做成口服藥在市面上銷售,此不侵害營業秘密,人透過科學之解析或還原工程去製造營業秘密所保護的標的,是被允許,此和專利不同,專利權人可排除他人製造其已取得專利權的發明、新型或設計。另外提醒一點,專利權和營業秘密是互斥的,只能選擇其一受保護。  

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法

'Resident Evil' Stunt Performer Drops Injury Lawsuit in L.A. 惡靈古堡的特技演員撤回在洛杉磯的訴訟 Its possible, however, that Olivia Jackson may pursue the case elsewhere. Attorneys for British stunt performer Olivia Jackson have dropped a Los Angeles-based lawsuit against the makers of Resident Evil: The Final Chapter.  英國特技演員奧利佛傑克森的律師撤回對“惡靈古堡:最終章”之製作公司在洛杉磯的訴訟。 The defendant argued in the motion to dismiss that Jackson's stunt performer contract specifically includes a provision requiring dispute resolution in South Africa. So it's possible that Jackson may pursue the case elsewhere.  被告爭執到該特技演員契約內容明確規定,本契約如發生爭議其訴訟管轄地為南非,因此該特技演員可能在他地另行起訴。 In September 2016, during the filming of Resident Evil: The Final Chapter, in Cape Town, South Africa, Jackson was badly injured during a stunt. While riding a motorcycle at a high speed, the 34-year-old veteran stunt performer collided with a crane-mounted camera that was traveling in the opposite direction. Her left arm was amputated above the elbow and she suffered lasting nerve damage and facial scarring. 2016年9月,在南非開普敦拍攝上開影片期間,34歲特技演員傑可森在為特技時受了很重的傷。事發時以高速騎著摩托車與反向行進之吊掛攝影機相撞。左手臂手肘以下截肢,同時受有持續性神經損害及面部傷疤。 Jackson’s initial U.S lawsuit, filed in September 2019 in Los Angeles, alleged that Resident Evil director Paul W. Anderson and his longtime producing partner, Jeremy Bolt, were responsible, and requested unspecified damages. 傑克遜最初於2019年9月在美國洛杉磯起訴,主張“惡靈古堡”導演Paul W. Anderson及其長期合作夥伴Jeremy Bolt要對其受傷負責,同時要求未定額的損害賠償金。 “The dismissal of the lawsuit included no settlement or payment of any kind,” said Joseph R. Taylor, an attorney with Frankfurt Kurnit Klein & Selz, the firm representing the defendants, which included director Anderson and producer Bolt, along with their respective production companies. “該訴訟無透過和解或給付任何金額而撤回,包括導演及製片和他們各自的製作公司” 代表被告的Frankfurt Kurnit Klein & Selz律師事務所之 Joseph R. Taylor這樣說道。 Jackson’s attorneys didn’t respond to requests for comment.  傑克遜的律師對該上開陳述未做任何回應及評論。