智慧財產相關案例分享
▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(搖頭公仔之保護)

搖頭公仔可受那些智慧財產權的保護                                                         我國旅美知名的棒球投手甲在大聯盟屢創佳績,某乙看準當下商機,竟未得其同意,仿效該投手之身形樣貌,製作成造型可愛的搖頭公仔〈娃娃〉,並將該球員投球的英姿縮小成一吋相片大小,使用於其發行筆記本、拖鞋等商品,以增加商品的買氣,某乙的行為可能涉及那些智慧財產權? 爭點解析 名人的身形樣貌受智慧財產保護否?搖頭公仔受何種智慧財產權保障?將名人身形樣貌予以縮小,使用於商品上涉及那些智慧財產權? 結論 首先知名度〈名氣〉是那一種權利?我國有無保護名氣?是否名人才享有名氣的保護?簡單的說,名氣就是個人姓名財產化的保護,姓名在我國是人格權非財產權,而在美國名氣不僅是一種財產權,更是一種智慧財產權,其是由隱私權演化而來,而此種權利並非僅存在於名人,而係人人都有,只是通常名人才會去主張,一般人比較不會主張;試想一個默默無名的人,廠商會否將其姓名或樣貌使用於其商品或服務來做廣告行銷之用,以提升其買氣?即使廠商如此為之,若他人未得該人同意,將其姓名或樣貌使用於商品或服務上,係增加該人的名氣,即使有所侵害,該人亦不會因之興訟。美國之所以將名氣認定為財產權,主要是因為財產權可以讓與或繼承,一旦認定為人格權,在權利的行使上就受到限縮,而不可否認的是,肖像或姓名這些屬於人格權範疇的權利,在利用上不可諱言地產生財產上利益,已非僅具人格權性質乃是不爭的事實,然在我國因受限於歐陸法系框架,仍堅守樣貌或姓名屬於人格權,對人民權利的保護實屬不周。據此;本題乙將甲的樣貌身形製作成搖頭公仔,可解釋成侵害甲的肖像權,但限於甲生存時才可以依民法相關規定主張財產上和非財產上損害而獲賠,至於搖頭公仔依著作權法第五條第一項各款著作內容例示〈行政命令〉,其中第二條〈四〉美術著作:包括繪畫…美術工藝品及其他之美術著作,可認定為美術工藝品而受著作權法保障。本題的乙雖有可能侵害甲的肖像權,但並不當然代表侵害著作權,端視該搖頭公仔是否為乙自行創作而定,畢竟侵害肖像權和著作權係兩碼子事,這點要特別分清楚。〈其餘部分待續〉 參拙著美國名人權法制研究

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(名模吉吉哈蒂案深度解析三)

In what the plaintiff called a “nearly identical” case filed at the beginning of 2019, Hadid similarly copied and posted a paparazzi photo of herself, owned by Xclusive-Lee, Inc., to one of her social media accounts without license or permission from the copyright owner. Xclusive-Lee, Inc. v. Hadid, 1:19-cv-00520-PKC-CLP (E.D.N.Y. 2019). 於2019年年初,哈蒂重製一張由狗仔對所攝含有她自己的照片並上傳於其社群網頁,而該照片之著作權人為Xclusive-Lee, Inc.,該公司遂以“幾近相同”為由,對之提起侵害著作財產權訴訟。 Aside from bringing the same claim as Cepeda, Xclusive also notes that Hadid had first-hand knowledge that what she was doing constituted copyright infringement since she had been sued for the same thing just two years prior. The district court dismissed this case due to a lack of a copyright registration, though Hadid’s legal team also raised the defenses of fair use and implied license. The second case may have begun paving the way for future legal challenges to clarify these issues by raising a novel argument—implied license—alongside the more typical defense of fair use. Perhaps the time has come for these arguments to finally be decided by the court since Hadid has been sued yet again—this time for posting a photographer’s copyrighted photo of her former boyfriend and singer/songwriter, Zayn Malik, without license or permission. O’Neil v. Hadid, 1:19-cv-8522 (S.D.N.Y. 2019). An initial pretrial conference is scheduled for January 14, 2020.以上中文譯文,為本人所譯;請尊重著作權,違法利用,本人必究。

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(名氣權;藝人之知名度於其死後之保護)

ven 50 years after her death, Marilyn Monroe continues to remain relevant.  In a strongly worded Opinion (available here)  last week, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the Estate of Marilyn Monroe does not have the right to stop others from using Marilyn Monroe’s name and likeness.  At issue in the case was whether Monroe’s Estate inherited a right of publicity in Marilyn Monroe’s name and likeness under California law. 在強而有力以文字載述下來的見解,第九巡迴上訴法院上週判決瑪麗蓮夢露遺產管理人無權去禁止他人利用其姓名及樣貌。本件之爭點是,瑪麗蓮夢露遺產管理人依照加州法是否繼承瑪麗蓮夢露之知名度(名氣權)。 Background:  For the past 50 years—since Monroe’s death in August 1962—Monroe’s Estate (and its successor, Monroe, LLC) has been asserting that it inherited Monroe’s right of publicity, claiming to own Monroe’s images, voice, likeness and biographical information—rights that were worth $27 million in 2011. 背景:從夢露1961年去世50年來—夢露之繼承人,夢露股份有限公司主張其繼承夢露之知名度,宣稱其對夢露的圖像、聲音、樣貌、自傳資料擁有權利,這些權利在2011年值2千7百萬美元。 New York or California?  Rights of publicity vary from state to state: though most states recognize the right during a person’s lifetime, only a few states extend those protections after death.  Though in California individuals have a posthumous publicity right, which can be bequeathed, in New York, the right of publicity is extinguished at death.  Monroe died at a house she owned in Brentwood, California, though she also maintained her prior residence in New York City.  Thus, the issue before the court was clear: if Monroe was a California resident at her death, the Monroe Estate would have inherited control of her name and likeness; if she was a New York resident, those rights would have expired when Monroe died. 紐約或加州:知名度這個權利之適用法各州不同,雖然大部分的州承認在人生存期間有知名度這個權利。僅有少許之州擴張至人死後仍擁有該權利。雖然加州人承認死後名氣權,可以繼承;但在紐約州名氣權於人死時消滅。夢露死於其位於加州Brentwood的房子內,雖然她亦主張在紐約市有住所。因此審理法院很明確地了解到本案爭點係,假如夢露死時是加州居民,那麼夢露遺產管理人將取得支配其姓名及樣貌之權,反之,夢露死時若是紐約州居民,上開權利將於其死亡時消滅。 Prior Proceedings.  After her death, Monroe’s lawyer and executor, Aaron Frosch, asserted to both the New York Surrogate’s Court and the California tax authorities that Monroe died a domiciliary of New York.  This allowed the Monroe Estate to avoid substantial California estate, inheritance and income taxes.  And in 1994, the Monroe Estate faced a claim by Monroe’s alleged daughter, Nancy Miracle, who sought 50% of the Estate under a provision of California law, which was not available under New York law.  The Estate defeated that claim by alleging that Monroe died a New York citizen. 於夢露死後,前訴訟程序中,夢露的律師同時亦是遺產執行人Aaron Frosch在紐約Surrogate's Court 和加州稅捐機關皆主張夢露是紐約州居民。這使得夢露的遺產可規避大筆的遺產稅和所得稅。1994年由一位宣稱是夢露女兒者Nancy Miracle依據加州法律對夢露遺產起訴請求50%的遺產,惟該法律為紐約州所無。最終判決認定夢露死時是紐約居民適用紐約州法(種種跡象顯示,夢露之遺囑執行人即其委任之律師,均主張夢露之住所為紐約,故以紐約州法為準據法)。 The Current Lawsuit and the May 2007 Ruling.  目前之訟端及2007年5月之判決 The lawsuit was brought in March 2005, when the Marily Monroe, LLC (the successor to the Estate) sued Milton Greene Archives, Inc., claiming ownership of Monroe’s right of publicity and alleging that the defendant unlawfully used Monroe’s image and likeness. 該訴訟於2005年3月提起,當Marily Monroe, LLC (夢露遺產繼承人) 對Milton Greene Archives, 公司起訴,主張其擁有夢露之名氣權,同時宣稱被告非法利用夢露之圖像及外貌。In May 2007 the district court granted summary judgment, holding that Monroe LLC did not own Monroe’s right of publicity because at the time of Monroe’s death neither New York nor California recognized a descendible, posthumous right of publicity. 2007年5月地區法院裁付即決決判 ,認為Monroe LLC並不擁有夢露之名氣權,因為在夢露身故時,不管是紐約州或加州都未承認死後名氣權。As the District Court explained, the California law that made publicity rights inheritable was only passed in 1984, decades after Monroe’s 1962 death.地區法院解釋道,加州法規定承認死後名氣權係在夢露死後22年即1984年才通過立法。 The California Legislature Overturns the Court.  加州立法部門推翻法院判決。In direct response to the Distict Court’s 2007 ruling, the California legislature passed a bill later that year, which said the publicity rights inheritance law was retroactive and applied to all those who had died prior to 1984.  直接對2007年地區法院之判決做出回應,加州立法部門後來在該年立法通過,名氣權可以繼承並回溯同時適用那些於1984年之前身故之人。The new law made the right of publicity freely transferable, descendible and able to pass through the residual clause in the will of the deceased personality   The law was explicitly designed to abrogate the 2007 ruling.新法使名氣權可任意移轉、繼承,並可藉由身故名人遺囑之殘存條款來過繼。 The District Court’s Second Ruling.  Monroe LLC later sought reconsideration of the district court’s ruling.  Although the district court granted Monroe LLC’s motion for reconsideration, it found that Monroe LLC was “advanc[ing] a position inconsistent with that taken by the estate in the prior proceeding[s].”  The District Court thus ruled that judicial estoppel would preclude Monroe, LLC from now taking an inconsistent position. Ninth Circuit Ruling.  The Ninth Circuit agreed with the district court that judicial estoppel prevented Monroe LLC from taking the position that Monroe died domiciled in California when it had prevailed in earlier suits on the premise that Monroe was a domiciliary of New York: “This is a textbook case for applying judicial estoppel. Monroe’s representatives took one position on Monroe’s domicile at death for 40 years, and then changed their position when it was to their great financial advantage,” the appeals court said. Thus photographers, artists, and others will be able to exploit images without authorization from the estate.  As the Ninth Circuit explained: “We observe that the lengthy dispute over the exploitation of Marilyn Monroe’s persona has ended in exactly the way that Monroe herself predicted more than 50 years ago: ‘I knew I belonged to the public and to the world, not because I was talented or even beautiful but because I had never belonged to anything or anyone else.”

▲蘇狀師談營業秘密法

淺談祖傳藥方的智財權保護 文/蘇思鴻律師 ▲各位是否知道世界上最貴的商標是什麼? 答案是可口可樂。而可口可樂的配方屬於營業秘密,它的價值在世界上也是數一數二,可見智慧財產權的威力是何等強大,現在這個時代是屬於知識經濟的時代。 我們常在不管是藥房或是夜市,常會見到祖傳祕方這幾個字,例如在中藥房老闆常會拿出幾帖藥方,稱說這是其幾代前所留下專治某某病的祖傳秘方,或是在夜市賣仙草茶或綠豆湯的阿婆,稱說他的仙草茶或綠豆湯與他人的不同,因為她所賣的加入了祖傳秘方。暫且不管係宣傳花招或噱頭,我們現在聚焦於智慧財產權的討論。 就上述祖傳藥方而言,若你是該祖傳藥方的傳人,你會選擇受那一種智慧財產權的保護?首先,該藥方涉及那些智慧財產權? 依我之見,此涉及專利權及營業秘密,至於要受那種智慧財產權的保護,端視權利人的選擇。 如果權利人選擇受專利權保護,首先要提出申請,同時要指明申請那一種專利。藥品屬於物的發明,應申請發明專利。若通過審查,則取得二十年排他的權利。若選擇受營業秘密保護,則無庸申請,而營業秘密則永久保護。(暫且不管藥物需取得許可方面的管制性法令)如果一個人透過藥物成分解析,得知該祖傳藥方的成分,進而做成口服藥在市面上銷售,此不侵害營業秘密,人透過科學之解析或還原工程去製造營業秘密所保護的標的,是被允許,此和專利不同,專利權人可排除他人製造其已取得專利權的發明、新型或設計。另外提醒一點,專利權和營業秘密是互斥的,只能選擇其一受保護。  

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(專屬及非專屬經紀契約)

Acting Agents – Exclusive and non-exclusive contracts 當職經紀人–專屬及非專屬契約 Exclusive An Exclusive contract with a talent agent means that your agent represents you for pretty much everything regardless of where the gig is. He represents you in New York, Los Angeles, Wichita…. where ever you go and whatever you do. Most exclusive agreements entitle the agent to their commissions even if they did not get you the gig or have anything to do with it. 專屬經紀契約意指不管你身在何處你的經紀人均係你的代表,不管你身在何處如紐約、洛杉磯、威奇托,亦不管你為何事,經紀人均代表你。絕大部分之經紀契約使經紀人都能獲取傭金,即便他們未能使藝人獲取酬勞或者使藝人後取酬勞而無所作為。 Non-Exclusive非專屬契約 This is the more popular type of contract and it is less restricting than the Exclusive contract. A Non-Exclusive agreement basically states that you can have more than one agent and is a popular choice for actors that work out of different cities. You can have one agent for New York and another for Los Angeles. The agent that gets paid is the one who sent you to the audition. 此種非專屬經紀契約係較受歡迎之契約態樣與專屬經紀契約相比,係較不受限制。非專屬經紀契約基本上規範你可以有一個以上之經紀人,同時此種模式也較受藝人歡迎。 Exclusive An Exclusive contract with a talent agent means that your agent represents you for pretty much everything regardless of where the gig is. He represents you in New York, Los Angeles, Wichita…. where ever you go and whatever you do. Most exclusive agreements entitle the agent to their commissions even if they did not get you the gig or have anything to do with it. 專屬經紀契約意指不管你身在何處你的經紀人均係你的代表,不管你身在何處如紐約、洛杉磯、威奇托,亦不管你為何事,經紀人均代表你。絕大部分之經紀契約使經紀人都能獲取傭金,即便他們未能使藝人獲取酬勞或者使藝人獲得酬勞與經紀人所為無因果關係,亦不生影響。   Non-Exclusive非專屬契約 This is the more popular type of contract and it is less restricting than the Exclusive contract. A Non-Exclusive agreement basically states that you can have more than one agent and is a popular choice for actors that work out of different cities. You can have one agent for New York and another for Los Angeles. The agent that gets paid is the one who sent you to the audition. 此種非專屬經紀契約係較受歡迎之契約態樣與專屬經紀契約相比,係較不受限制。非專屬經紀契約基本上規範你可以有一個以上之經紀人,同時此種模式,也較受藝人歡迎,同時提供藝人身處於不同城市一個不錯之選擇。你可以在紐約有個經紀人,同時在洛杉磯也有個經紀人。可獲得報酬之經紀人是可以使你大量曝光的那個推手。 Contract terms契約期限 Contracts are normally signed for period of a year even though sometimes longer terms are used. Many people are afraid of contracts and beginning actors sometimes get the misconception that they are now in someway “owned” by the agent. With most contracts that is not the case and the contract is a way to make sure that you pay the agency if you got the gig they sent you on. 契約正常以1年為期,即使有時會長於1年。許多人懼怕契約同時一些剛起步之藝人有時誤解他們為經紀人“所有”。契約是你獲得報酬將之提付與經紀人酬勞的一種方式。 A contract is nothing to fear. It spells out the agreement between both sides and what each side provides the other.  If you believe your agency is not doing its job you can request to end the agreement in writing. If an agency is unhappy with your performance, they will simply not send you to auditions and you may never get anything in writing from them. 無需懼怕契約,契約是雙方明確規範雙方權利義務之一種書面協議。倘若你認為你的經紀人不能勝任的話,你可以書面終止經紀契約。假如你的經紀人對你的表現不甚滿意,他們將不會為你力爭試鏡機會,同時也不會以書面方式告知你。