智慧財產相關案例分享
▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(搖頭公仔之保護)

搖頭公仔可受那些智慧財產權的保護                                                         我國旅美知名的棒球投手甲在大聯盟屢創佳績,某乙看準當下商機,竟未得其同意,仿效該投手之身形樣貌,製作成造型可愛的搖頭公仔〈娃娃〉,並將該球員投球的英姿縮小成一吋相片大小,使用於其發行筆記本、拖鞋等商品,以增加商品的買氣,某乙的行為可能涉及那些智慧財產權? 爭點解析 名人的身形樣貌受智慧財產保護否?搖頭公仔受何種智慧財產權保障?將名人身形樣貌予以縮小,使用於商品上涉及那些智慧財產權? 結論 首先知名度〈名氣〉是那一種權利?我國有無保護名氣?是否名人才享有名氣的保護?簡單的說,名氣就是個人姓名財產化的保護,姓名在我國是人格權非財產權,而在美國名氣不僅是一種財產權,更是一種智慧財產權,其是由隱私權演化而來,而此種權利並非僅存在於名人,而係人人都有,只是通常名人才會去主張,一般人比較不會主張;試想一個默默無名的人,廠商會否將其姓名或樣貌使用於其商品或服務來做廣告行銷之用,以提升其買氣?即使廠商如此為之,若他人未得該人同意,將其姓名或樣貌使用於商品或服務上,係增加該人的名氣,即使有所侵害,該人亦不會因之興訟。美國之所以將名氣認定為財產權,主要是因為財產權可以讓與或繼承,一旦認定為人格權,在權利的行使上就受到限縮,而不可否認的是,肖像或姓名這些屬於人格權範疇的權利,在利用上不可諱言地產生財產上利益,已非僅具人格權性質乃是不爭的事實,然在我國因受限於歐陸法系框架,仍堅守樣貌或姓名屬於人格權,對人民權利的保護實屬不周。據此;本題乙將甲的樣貌身形製作成搖頭公仔,可解釋成侵害甲的肖像權,但限於甲生存時才可以依民法相關規定主張財產上和非財產上損害而獲賠,至於搖頭公仔依著作權法第五條第一項各款著作內容例示〈行政命令〉,其中第二條〈四〉美術著作:包括繪畫…美術工藝品及其他之美術著作,可認定為美術工藝品而受著作權法保障。本題的乙雖有可能侵害甲的肖像權,但並不當然代表侵害著作權,端視該搖頭公仔是否為乙自行創作而定,畢竟侵害肖像權和著作權係兩碼子事,這點要特別分清楚。〈其餘部分待續〉 參拙著美國名人權法制研究

被前公司起訴侵害著作權,律師協助取得勝訴

【 起訴事實 】 委任人甲原本於乙公司任職,離職後自行創業,不久乙公司竟稱甲所出版的教材,侵害乙公司專有之改作權、重製權、公開口述權及散布權,起訴請求甲應賠償500 萬元,並應將判決書以半版之篇幅(寬26公分、長35.5公分),刊登於中國時報、聯合報及自由時報之全國版頭版各一天,並應將本判決書全文以一頁之篇幅,刊登於商業週刊、天下雜誌及遠見雜誌各一期。........https://www.alicelaw.com.tw/cases_content.html?n=64

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(名氣權vs著作權)

Right of Publicity v Copyright Infringement 知名度v著作權侵權 There have been instances in which a Right of Publicity claim has been preempted by Plaintiff’s copyright infringement claim.  The Ninth Circuit recently found that a Plaintiff actor’s claim that his Right of Publicity had been violated was preempted by the Copyright Act because the “factual basis of his right of publicity claim was the unauthorized reproduction of his performance on the DVDs.”  Jules Jordan Video, Inc. v. 144942 Canada Inc., 617 F.3d 1146, 1154 (9th Cir. 2010).  Therefore, the “essence” of Plaintiff’s claim was the reproduction and distribution of DVDs without authorization, which fell under Copyright protection.   Explaining the rationale behind this, the Ninth Circuit stated that: “Were we to conclude that [Plaintiff’s] misappropriation claim was not preempted by the Copyright Act, then virtually every use of a copyright[] would infringe upon the original performer’s right of publicity.”  Laws v. Sony Music Entm’t, Inc., 448 F.3d 1134, 1145 (9th Cir. 2006). 最近有一案例,知名度優先著作權而受保護。第九巡迴法院最近認定,原告起訴主張其知名度被侵害優先適用著作權法而受保護;因該知名度訴求之事實上依據係未經其授權重製DVD上 之表演,Jules Jordan Video, Inc. v. 144942 Canada Inc., 617 F.3d 1146, 1154 (9th Cir. 2010).  所以,原告訴求之重製及散布DVDs,其落入著作權之保護。詮釋其背後之理論,第九巡迴法院闡述,我們總結原告起訴主張盜用著作權並不應先適用,實際上每一利用著作權係侵害原創表演者之知名度。Laws v. Sony Music Entm’t, Inc., 448 F.3d 1134, 1145 (9th Cir. 2006).

▲蘇狀師談營業秘密法

淺談祖傳藥方的智財權保護 文/蘇思鴻律師 ▲各位是否知道世界上最貴的商標是什麼? 答案是可口可樂。而可口可樂的配方屬於營業秘密,它的價值在世界上也是數一數二,可見智慧財產權的威力是何等強大,現在這個時代是屬於知識經濟的時代。 我們常在不管是藥房或是夜市,常會見到祖傳祕方這幾個字,例如在中藥房老闆常會拿出幾帖藥方,稱說這是其幾代前所留下專治某某病的祖傳秘方,或是在夜市賣仙草茶或綠豆湯的阿婆,稱說他的仙草茶或綠豆湯與他人的不同,因為她所賣的加入了祖傳秘方。暫且不管係宣傳花招或噱頭,我們現在聚焦於智慧財產權的討論。 就上述祖傳藥方而言,若你是該祖傳藥方的傳人,你會選擇受那一種智慧財產權的保護?首先,該藥方涉及那些智慧財產權? 依我之見,此涉及專利權及營業秘密,至於要受那種智慧財產權的保護,端視權利人的選擇。 如果權利人選擇受專利權保護,首先要提出申請,同時要指明申請那一種專利。藥品屬於物的發明,應申請發明專利。若通過審查,則取得二十年排他的權利。若選擇受營業秘密保護,則無庸申請,而營業秘密則永久保護。(暫且不管藥物需取得許可方面的管制性法令)如果一個人透過藥物成分解析,得知該祖傳藥方的成分,進而做成口服藥在市面上銷售,此不侵害營業秘密,人透過科學之解析或還原工程去製造營業秘密所保護的標的,是被允許,此和專利不同,專利權人可排除他人製造其已取得專利權的發明、新型或設計。另外提醒一點,專利權和營業秘密是互斥的,只能選擇其一受保護。  

▲蘇狀師談娛樂法(專屬及非專屬經紀契約)

Acting Agents – Exclusive and non-exclusive contracts 當職經紀人–專屬及非專屬契約 Exclusive An Exclusive contract with a talent agent means that your agent represents you for pretty much everything regardless of where the gig is. He represents you in New York, Los Angeles, Wichita…. where ever you go and whatever you do. Most exclusive agreements entitle the agent to their commissions even if they did not get you the gig or have anything to do with it. 專屬經紀契約意指不管你身在何處你的經紀人均係你的代表,不管你身在何處如紐約、洛杉磯、威奇托,亦不管你為何事,經紀人均代表你。絕大部分之經紀契約使經紀人都能獲取傭金,即便他們未能使藝人獲取酬勞或者使藝人後取酬勞而無所作為。 Non-Exclusive非專屬契約 This is the more popular type of contract and it is less restricting than the Exclusive contract. A Non-Exclusive agreement basically states that you can have more than one agent and is a popular choice for actors that work out of different cities. You can have one agent for New York and another for Los Angeles. The agent that gets paid is the one who sent you to the audition. 此種非專屬經紀契約係較受歡迎之契約態樣與專屬經紀契約相比,係較不受限制。非專屬經紀契約基本上規範你可以有一個以上之經紀人,同時此種模式也較受藝人歡迎。 Exclusive An Exclusive contract with a talent agent means that your agent represents you for pretty much everything regardless of where the gig is. He represents you in New York, Los Angeles, Wichita…. where ever you go and whatever you do. Most exclusive agreements entitle the agent to their commissions even if they did not get you the gig or have anything to do with it. 專屬經紀契約意指不管你身在何處你的經紀人均係你的代表,不管你身在何處如紐約、洛杉磯、威奇托,亦不管你為何事,經紀人均代表你。絕大部分之經紀契約使經紀人都能獲取傭金,即便他們未能使藝人獲取酬勞或者使藝人後取酬勞而無所作為。   Non-Exclusive非專屬契約 This is the more popular type of contract and it is less restricting than the Exclusive contract. A Non-Exclusive agreement basically states that you can have more than one agent and is a popular choice for actors that work out of different cities. You can have one agent for New York and another for Los Angeles. The agent that gets paid is the one who sent you to the audition. 此種非專屬經紀契約係較受歡迎之契約態樣與專屬經紀契約相比,係較不受限制。非專屬經紀契約基本上規範你可以有一個以上之經紀人,同時此種模式,也較受藝人歡迎,同時提供藝人身處於不同城市一個不錯之選擇。你可以在紐約有個經紀人,同時在洛杉磯也有個經紀人。可獲得報酬之經紀人是可以使你大量曝光的那個推手。 Contract terms契約期限 Contracts are normally signed for period of a year even though sometimes longer terms are used. Many people are afraid of contracts and beginning actors sometimes get the misconception that they are now in someway “owned” by the agent. With most contracts that is not the case and the contract is a way to make sure that you pay the agency if you got the gig they sent you on. 契約正常以1年為期,即使有時會長於1年。許多人懼怕契約同時一些剛起步之藝人有時誤解他們為經紀人“所有”。契約是你獲得報酬將之提付與經紀人酬勞的一種方式。 A contract is nothing to fear. It spells out the agreement between both sides and what each side provides the other.  If you believe your agency is not doing its job you can request to end the agreement in writing. If an agency is unhappy with your performance, they will simply not send you to auditions and you may never get anything in writing from them. 無需懼怕契約,契約是雙方明確規範雙方權利義務之一種書面協議。